Year: 2019 | Month: February | Volume: 9 | Issue: 2 | Pages: 230-240
The Role of Antibiotics in Mucosal Colonization and Invasion with Regards to Gut Microbes
Suhas K Thazha1, Salesh P Chandrean2, Zafar Akbar1, Sumod P George3
1College of Applied Medical Sciences, Al-Dawadmi, Shaqra University, Ministry of Higher Education, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
2HLL Biotech Ltd. Chennai, India.
3College of Applied Medical Sciences, Hail University, Ministry of Higher Education, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Corresponding Author: Suhas K Thazha
Mammals are the magnificent organisms, being a complex of vertebrates and microbial cells existing in mutualism. Compact, advanced microbial communities, put together called as the microbiota, occupy a various bunch of slot on the length of the mammalian intestinal tract. The microbiota is a vital element in the event of the immune reaction. The mucosal immune complex consists of molecules, cells, and formed lymphoid structures contracted to supply immunity to pathogens that invade upon mucosal surfaces. Mucosal infection by intracellular pathogens ends up in the initiation of cell-mediated immunity, as manifested by CD4-positive (CD4+) T helper-type 1 cells, as well as CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. These reactions are ordinarily accompanied by the synthesis of secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA) antibodies, which offers a vial initial line of defense against the infiltration of deeper tissues by these pathogens. Antibiotic treatment alters this delicate balance by inflicting integrative changes within the intestinal microbiota and will cause a homeostatic imbalance through a transformation in the execution of intestinal epithelial cells tight junction proteins, mucin, antimicrobial peptides, and cytokines. Dysregulation of the homeostasis enclosed by vertebrates and their intestinal symbionts has been shown to incline the host to enteric infection. The impact of antibiotics on the host’s protecting microbiota and therefore ensuing an increased susceptibility to mucosal infection are poorly understood. Whereas combinations of antibiotics were capable of eliminating culturable bacteria, none of the antibiotic treatments were efficient to sterilize the intestinal tract. During health and within the absence of antibiotic exposure the microbiota will effectively prevent colonization and overgrowth by invasive microbes like pathogens. This development is named ‘colonization resistance’ and is related to a stable and numerous microbiota in the line up with a controlled lack of inflammation, and includes specific communications between the mucosal immune system and the microbiota. This review summarizes the data concerning the impact of antibiotics in mucosal colonization and invasion with relevant to Gut region. In addition, it will also define evidence that antibiotic use will have an enduring impact on gut microbiota, further as discuss a number of the troublesome aftereffect of exaggerated antibiotic use on gut microorganisms.
Key words: symbiosis; microbes; microbiota; mucosal immunity; intestinal homeostasis; colonial resistance; antibiotics.