Year: 2018 | Month: June | Volume: 8 | Issue: 6 | Pages: 315-333
Biosensors: Classification, Fundamental Characterization and New Trends: A Review
Hardeep Kaur, Aakash Bhosale, Suraj Shrivastav
Department of Biotechnology, Chandigarh University, Gharuan Mohali, Punjab, India
Corresponding Author: Hardeep Kaur
Recent advances in developing low-cost and highly efficientbiosensors devices which are highly sensitive and specific have opened new scope for detection of sample e.g. drugs, contaminated bio agents ,metabolites, pollutants in atmosphere, and microbial load etc. by converting biochemical signals into measurable physiochemical signals which lead to quantify the amount of sample. Recently nano-biosensors, implanted biosensors and integrated biosensors are playing a critical role in current research area and development techniques. The various types of biosensors such as enzyme-based, tissue-based, immunosensors, and DNA biosensors, thermal and piezoelectric biosensors have been studied here to highlight their consequential applications in countless fields. Basic research is still required to refine the sensing strategies as well as analytical instrumentations and procedures to get new applications in numerous fields. Biosensors and their role in medical science including early stage detection of various diseases include human interleukin-10 causing heart diseases, rapid detection of human papilloma virus, etc. are critical aspects. Fluorescent biosensors play an important role in drug discovery and in cancer. DNA biosensors, based on nucleic acid recognition methods, are being developed towards the assay of rapid, simple and economical testing of genetic and infectious diseases. Moreover, the detection of specific DNA sequence is of importance in various areas of interest including clinical, environmental and food analysis. Biosensor applications are prevalent in the plant biology sector to find out the missing links required in metabolic processes. In this article, we present the basics of biosensing devices which can serve as an introductory part for those who are new to this field.
Key words: Biosensors, sensing elements, transducer, amperometric, potentiometric, optical biosensor.