Original Research Article
Year: 2018 | Month: May | Volume: 8 | Issue: 5 | Pages: 122-128
Effect of Maternal Undernutrition on Foetal Outcome
Kiran Kumar P1, Sapna Singh2, Raj Kumar Srivastava3, Shirin Jahan3, Sanjay Nigam4
1Ph.D. Student, 3Professor,
Department of Anatomy, Rama Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre, Kanpur, Rama University India.
2Professor, Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Rama Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre, Kanpur, Rama University, India
4Professor, Department of Pathology, Rama Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre, Kanpur, Rama University India
Corresponding Author: Kiran Kumar P
Introduction: Maternal dietary nutrient intake during pregnancy plays a key role in the growth of the foetus. Understanding the relation between maternal nutrition and birth outcomes may provide a basis for developing nutritional interventions that will improve birth outcomes and long-term quality of life and reduce mortality, morbidity, and health-care costs. Maternal body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) represent the major determinants of maternal adaptation to incremental energy needs during pregnancy. Maternal undernutrition associated with low birth weight, preterm birth, low APGAR score, still birth and neonatal mortality. The aim of the present study was to distinguish the effect of maternal undernutrition on the foetal outcome.
Materials and Methods: In the present study 197 placentae were collected under 2 groups. Group-I (Control group): normal pregnant women. Group II (Study group) consists of Subgroup IIA - Undernourished mothers with anaemia, Subgroup-IIB: Undernourished mothers without anaemia, Subgroup-IIC: Anaemic mothers with pre-pregnancy BMI>18.5kg/m2. Out of 197 placentae, 92 were of group I, 41 of subgroup IIA, 20 were of subgroup IIB and 44 were of subgroup IIC.
Results: In the present study, it was observed that increased numbers of low birth weight babies, preterm births, low APGAR score, NICU admissions and still births or intrauterine deaths were significantly increased in undernourished group particularly in undernourished mothers with anemia (Subgroup IIA).
Conclusion: Maternal undernutrition gives poor outcome of pregnancy. Counseling should be needed to all women in reproductive age group so that they can attain normal BMI before conception as well as adequate gestational weight gain during pregnancy. Regular antenatal care is mandatory to take the all sufficient supplements in order to prevent the adverse outcome of pregnancy.
Key words: Undernutrition, Maternal Body Mass Index, Gestational weight Gain, Anaemia, Foetal Outcome