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Review Article

Year: 2018 | Month: December | Volume: 8 | Issue: 12 | Pages: 174-177

Representation of A‘ḍā’ Mufrada (Simple Organs): Then and Now

Mohd Anus Ansari1, Ashhar Qadeer2

1P. G. Scholar, 2Professor, Department of Kulliyat, Ajmal Khan Tibbiya College, Faculty of Unani Medicine, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, U.P., India. 202002

Corresponding Author: Mohd Anus Ansari


Background:The homogenous organs found in human body which are solid in consistency are known as A‘ḍā’ mufrada. According to majority of Unani physicians the simple organs are Iẓām (bones), Ghaḍārīf (cartilages), Ribāṭ (ligaments), Awtār (tendons), Aghshi’ya (membranes), Laḥm (muscular tissue), A‘ṣāb (nerves), Sharāyīn (arteries), Awrida (veins), and Shaḥm (fat). Some physicians also added Ash‘ār (hairs), Mukh (bone marrow) and Aẓfār (nails).
Purpose:The list of simple organs present in Unani classical literature is macroscopic, but with respect to time and advancements, as there is huge gap of time, the vision and approach to visualize the things had been reached to nanotechnology from macroscopic that was only done through naked eyes. Therefore, it is much needed to see the simple organs under the vision of present knowledge and represent them if needed.
Methodology:Organs which are constituted of similar basic units would be kept as simple organs; otherwise it would be compound organ. The work had been done with the help of advancement by histologist.
Conclusion: In Unani literature it must be analyzed and re-visualized to update the chapter of A‘ḍā’ mufrada (simple organs). If there are some organs which are not of similar basic units must be excluded.

Key words: A‘ḍā’ mufrada, simple organs, homogenous organs, human body, Unani.

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